Hip Replacement Surgery: What to Expect Before, During, and After

Before the surgery, the patient will undergo pre-operative tests and evaluations to ensure that they are fit for the procedure. This may include blood tests, an EKG, and X-rays of the hip joint. The patient will also meet with the anaesthesiologist to discuss the type of anaesthesia that will be used during the procedure.

During the surgery, the damaged joint will be removed and replaced with an artificial one. The procedure is typically performed under general anaesthesia and can take several hours to complete. The surgeon will make an incision in the hip and remove the damaged joint. The new joint will then be positioned and secured in place.

After the surgery, patients will need to go through a period of recovery and rehabilitation to help them regain their mobility and strength. This may include physical therapy, pain management, and the use of assistive devices such as crutches or a walker. The recovery time and success of the surgery may vary depending on the individual’s overall health and the type of implant used.

In the first few weeks after surgery, patients will be advised to limit their activity and avoid putting weight on the affected hip. As the hip begins to heal, patients will gradually increase their activity level and begin to regain their strength and mobility. The length of the recovery period can vary from person to person, but most people are able to return to their normal activities within a few months.

It is important to note that hip replacement surgery is not a cure for the underlying condition that caused the joint damage. However, it can greatly improve the patient’s quality of life by reducing pain and improving mobility.


This article was written by Ben Clegg part of an ongoing series of scientific communications written and curated by BioTrib’s Early Stage Researchers.

Ben is researching the Wear particle characterization and bio-compatibility of newly 3D printed self-lubricating polymer composites in total joint replacements at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.


For Patients: A To-Do List Before Total Joint Replacement

Joint replacement surgery is an effective procedure that can considerably improve your quality of life. However, before you undergo surgery, there are a few things you should do to prepare. Here is a to-do list to help you get ready for your joint replacement surgery:

  1. Meet with your surgeon: Before the surgery, you will have a consultation with your surgeon. During this meeting, your surgeon will explain the procedure and answer any questions you may have.
  2. Get medical clearance: Your surgeon will likely require that you get medical clearance from your primary care physician before the surgery. This will ensure that you are healthy enough to undergo the procedure.
  3. Stop smoking: If you smoke, your surgeon will likely ask you to quit before the surgery. This is because smoking can slow down the healing process and increase the risk of complications.
  4. Arrange for help: Joint replacement surgery requires a period of recovery, so you will need someone to help you with daily tasks during this time. Make arrangements for someone to help you before the surgery.
  5. Gather necessary items: You will need to have certain items on hand for your recovery, such as comfortable clothing, slippers, and a raised toilet seat. Make sure you have these items before the surgery.
  6. Prepare your home: You will need to prepare your home for your recovery by making it easy to navigate and removing any potential hazards.
  7. Stock up on supplies: You will need certain supplies for your recovery, such as pain medication and ice packs. Make sure you have these items before the surgery.
  8. Get a good night’s sleep: The night before the surgery, make sure you get a good night’s sleep to ensure you are well-rested and ready for the procedure.
  9. Eat a healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet before surgery can help to improve your overall health and speed up your recovery.
  10. Avoid certain medications: Your surgeon will likely advise you to avoid certain medications, such as blood thinners, before the surgery.
  11. Follow instructions: Be sure to follow all instructions given to you by your surgeon before the surgery.
  12. Take your pre-op medications: You will be given certain medications to take before the surgery. Be sure to take them as directed.
  13. Do your exercises: Your surgeon may give you exercises to do before the surgery to help prepare your body for the procedure.
  14. Get your affairs in order: Before the surgery, take care of any important business or personal matters.
  15. Keep your loved ones informed: Keep your loved ones informed of your surgery and recovery progress.
  16. Pack a bag: Pack a bag with the essentials you will need during your hospital stay.
  17. Prepare for transportation: Arrange for transportation to and from the hospital.
  18. Keep your ID and Insurance card handy: Keep your ID and Insurance card handy for the day of the surgery
  19. Keep your surgeon updated: Keep your surgeon updated of any changes in your health condition before the surgery
  20. Read the patient manual: Read the patient manual provided by the hospital and be prepared for the pre-op process
  21. Get your finances in order: Get your finances in order and make sure you understand the cost of the surgery and any possible additional cost
  22. Set realistic expectations: Be realistic about the recovery process and the results of the surgery
  23. Follow post-op instructions: Follow all post-op instructions given by your surgeon

This article was written by Edona Hyla as part of an ongoing series of scientific communications written and curated by BioTrib’s Early Stage Researchers.

Edona’s research is focussing on Understanding the Nature, Origin and Degradation of Implant Debris at the University of Leeds, UK

Flooding in Pakistan

While Europe deals with severe drought ‘thought to be one of the worst ever witnessed in the continent’, another country in Asia is dealing with the other side of the spectrum. Pakistan, a South Asian country having an area roughly equivalent to combined total of Germany and France and home to the fifth largest population in the world, has been flooded with excessive rains, the worst in the country’s history. A country whose rainfall average is barely 200 mm in a good year has seen rainfalls of more than 800 mm this year on average and above 1000 mm in some regions, resulting in uncontrollable urban and flash floods, landslides, across the country. More than 60% of the country, equivalent to the total area of the UK, is under water at the moment of writing this post, 1,000+ people have lost their lives while the survivors struggle to feed their families and cattle as most of the agrarian land has been lost[1].

Left: Image of Pakistan taken on August 28 last year. Right: Image of Pakistan taken on August 28 this year with NASA’s MODIS satellite sensor

A country that is home to Himalayas and to ~7.500 glaciers, more than anywhere in the world outside of the polar regions has been facing severe climate change over the past few years. I remember growing up in Pakistan through the 90s and 2000’s. Over the years, the climate has significantly changed for worse, I have seen air conditioning moving from luxury to a necessity. Just in the month of April/May this year when a European starts to get in summer spirits, Pakistan was already witnessing temperatures ranging above 50°C, highest in the world for those months. Pakistan only contributes 0.5% to global carbon emissions yet it is the country predicted to lose all the glaciers and henceforth water supplies first.

As researchers we must not sit idle and await the eventual doom, rather it is our duty to rise up to the occasion and raise our voice / come up with solution to deal with climate crisis. A successful public awareness and collaboration campaign similar to ozone layer depletion campaign[2] is the need of the hour to push back on anti-climate change narrative, raise awareness in the general populace and develop global policy to contain the effects.

This article was written by Sallar Ali Qazi as part of an ongoing series of scientific communications written and curated by BioTrib’s Early Stage Researchers.

Sallar Ali Qazi is researching Mechanical and Tribo-Chemical Wear Modelling of Artificial Joint Prostheses at Imperial College London, UK


[1] Pakistan: 2022 Monsoon Floods – Situation Report: https://reliefweb.int/report/pakistan/pakistan-2022-monsoon-floods-situation-report-no-03-26-august-2022.
[2] https://theconversation.com/the-ozone-hole-is-both-an-environmental-success-story-and-an-enduring-global-threat-100524

MXenes: 2D material for tribological applications

Graphene and its derivatives are the most studied 2D materials in general. TMDs, h-BN, BP, TMOs, and MXenes are among the other 2D materials that have been intensively studied. MXene nano-sheets are a new family of layered transition metal carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides, with Ti3C2Tx being the most prominent member. MXenes have high electrical conductivity, mechanical characteristics, tunable surface chemistry, and inherent antibacterial/antiviral capabilities, making them particularly attractive for biological applications[1]–[4].

The general formula of MXenes is: Mn + 1XnTx

M, X, and T can be represented by a variety of elements, as shown in the periodic table above[5]. MAX phase precursors are used to make MXenes. 2D structures, such as surface terminations, are defined by the ending -ene. The same mechanical exfoliation processes that were utilized to separate the graphene layer from the graphite are employed to synthesize MXenes. However, selective etching is commonly utilized due to the low volume of production with mechanical exfoliation.

The mechanical and tribological properties are influenced by the transition metal, surface terminations, and monolayer thickness[1], [2]. As a result, it can be employed as lubricant additives, lubrication coatings, and composite fillers. Its application as a solid lubricant has been extensively investigated, although its usage as a reinforcement is still in its early stages. Tribological study for few and multilayer of Ti3C2Tx  as solid lubricant using air spraying on stainless steel has shown that multilayer MXenes  exhibited the low COF compared to the few layer MXenes.  Another study found that employing a solid lubricant layer improved tribological properties[3]. MXenes have also been shown to decrease microstructural changes in materials and to efficiently transfer tribofilm to the counter surface, resulting in improved tribological characteristics. MXenes have a longer normalized wear life than other 2D solid lubricants, and they can achieve super lubricity if the experimental conditions are optimized [4].

The most remarkable aspect regarding their use in biotribological applications is their intrinsic biocompatibility combined with antibacterial and antiviral capabilities, which is true for several 2D materials like graphene, GO, rGO, MXenes, MoS2, and others [6], [7]. Despite the fact that MXenes is still in its infancy, its popularity is constantly increasing.

You can learn more by watching Philipp Grützmacher’s webinar and going through the references.

MXenes: A Model Material for Solid Lubricants | Surface Ventures


This article was written by Dilesh Raj Shrestha as part of an ongoing series of scientific communications written and curated by BioTrib’s Early Stage Researchers.

Dilesh is researching the Development of 3D-printable, self-lubricated polymer composites with improved wear resistance for total joint replacement at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.




[1]        Y. Gogotsi and B. Anasori, “The Rise of MXenes,” ACS Nano, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 8491–8494, Aug. 2019, doi: 10.1021/ACSNANO.9B06394/ASSET/IMAGES/MEDIUM/NN9B06394_0005.GIF.

[2]        J. Huang, Z. Li, Y. Mao, and Z. Li, “Progress and biomedical applications of MXenes,” Nano Select, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1480–1508, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1002/NANO.202000309.

[3]        X. Lin et al., “Fascinating MXene nanomaterials: emerging opportunities in the biomedical field,” Biomaterials Science, vol. 9, no. 16, pp. 5437–5471, Aug. 2021, doi: 10.1039/D1BM00526J.

[4]        A. Zamhuri, G. P. Lim, N. L. Ma, K. S. Tee, and C. F. Soon, “MXene in the lens of biomedical engineering: synthesis, applications and future outlook,” BioMedical Engineering Online, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–24, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1186/S12938-021-00873-9/METRICS.

[5]        Y. Gogotsi and Q. Huang, “MXenes: Two-Dimensional Building Blocks for Future Materials and Devices,” ACS Nano, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 5775–5780, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1021/ACSNANO.1C03161/ASSET/IMAGES/MEDIUM/NN1C03161_0003.GIF.

[6]        X. le Hu et al., “Low-dimensional nanomaterials for antibacterial applications,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 9, no. 17, pp. 3640–3661, May 2021, doi: 10.1039/D1TB00033K.

[7]        Z. Tu, G. Guday, M. Adeli, and R. Haag, “Multivalent Interactions between 2D Nanomaterials and Biointerfaces,” Advanced Materials, vol. 30, no. 33, p. 1706709, Aug. 2018, doi: 10.1002/ADMA.201706709.


Selective Laser Melting (SLM) induced grain boundary engineering (GBE) strategy

Grain boundary engineering (GBE) has been one of the key methods to improve the surface properties of high-performance alloy materials. Increasing the frequency of coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries by GBE was found to optimise grain boundary character distribution, disrupting the connectivity of random boundaries and enhancing the resistance to grain boundary degradation. GBE can be achieved by thermomechanical processes, while some conventional approaches like cold working followed by annealing are not feasible for customised complex components.

In this article, Dong et al. have brought the potential of improving the stress corrosion resistance of selective laser melting (SLM) fabricated components by GBE to light. Co-Cr alloy specimens were fabricated by SLM using the checkboard laser scan strategy and the GBE process was done by annealing at 1200 for 1 h. Through the annealing, a high frequency of twin and twin-variant boundaries was generated from the residual strain stored in the SLM fabricated Co-Cr alloys which interrupted the random boundary networks, improving the crack resistance in 0.9% NaCl solution.

Optical microscope (OM) images of SLM fabricated Co-Cr alloys before (a) and after (d) annealing reveals that the typical fish-scale morphology commonly seen in SLM alloys disappeared and uniform equiaxed grains were formed via GBE. The Kernel average misorientation maps (KAM) show that the residual strain stored in the not annealed specimen (b) is higher than the annealed one (e), which acts as the precursor of the generation of the high frequency of special boundaries through recrystallization. The inverse pole figure (IPF) map of SLM fabricated Co-Cr alloys without annealing (c) shows the preference of <100> and <111> grain orientations along the building direction while randomly distributed orientations are formed after annealing.


By comparing these microstructural characteristics of SLM Co-Cr alloys with and without annealing, it’s interesting to see that the effects of GBE are so significant. This study shows the power of engineering microstructures and grains in improving the corrosion resistance of SLM Co-Cr alloys, which is useful for biomedical applications.

If you are interested in more details, please read the original article here.

Dong, Xin, et al. “Grain boundary character and stress corrosion cracking behavior of Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting.” Journal of Materials Science & Technology 93 (2021): 244-253.


This post was written by Esperanza Shi as part of an ongoing series of scientific communications written and curated by BioTrib’s Early Stage Researchers.

Esperanza is researching the Optimisation of Scanning Strategies for 3D Printed Artificial Joints at Imperial College London, UK.

Mechanical Engineers Walk the Walk – Well Cycle the Cycle!

Absolutely great effort from the School’s Med Tech cyclists Drs Peter Culmer and Andrew Jackson in support of Cancer Support Yorkshire. The route was the famous The Way of the Roses… nice play on words… unifying the pre-eminent counties of England, Lancashire and Yorkshire.

A mighty 250 km cycle across the country in one day!

Please donate on Just Giving: https://www.justgiving.com/fundraising/andrew-jackson112

This post was written by Richard M Hall on behalf of Andrew Jackson and Pete Culmer – Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds.

Conspiracy theories as new pandemics arise… the role of the scientist!

Word Cloud from a set of Guardian posts on the origins of HIV

While reading the literature for a forthcoming grant submission on aspects of the HIV pandemic, I came across several articles both within and outside the mainstream media that relate to the development and spread of troubling assertions. These concern, for instance, the origin of HIV and an implied role of politicians in restricting or encouraging certain avenues of development to maintain industries’ pre-eminent economic position and profit-making. Sometimes these assertions develop into conspiracy theories which are explained, at a later date, in relatively simple terms, as is the case in recognising HIV sequences in the SARS-Cov-2 virus. Here, a bit more thought and critical evaluation would have prevented this avenue of thought, but instead it was posted on a pre-print server for all to see and then subsequently withdrawn, but not before the ‘engineered’ virus concept had taken hold in certain areas of the media.  The simple explanation was that a number of viruses have these sequences.

So what, as scientists, are we to do about preventing such misrepresentations in terms of engaging the public and our own self-management? Here are some thoughts:

  • Employ the skills that are central to our work as scientists, indeed as researchers more broadly, of checking, validating and providing critical insight to our work.  This is particularly important in the medical field generally, but in pandemics specifically, where there may be a heightened awareness of our own frailty and fear of new pathogens that arise from time to time.
  • Personally, I am concerned by the rise in the production of pre-prints from a niche activity to one that has now become mainstream. I suspect this is motivated by data-driven metrics (citations but also prestige) as well as the ‘first to print’, which may be important in exploiting base technologies. It can be argued, however, that this rapid dissemination of information is key, not only in developing collaborative research, especially in times of a pandemic, but also in allowing the quick development of frameworks and insights that may otherwise take months to generate if the peer-review process had to be adhered to. To protect both the research community and the wider public, servers hosting pre-prints have strengthened their assessment procedures once an article is posted. Nature Cancer provides a more nuanced overview of this issue as does the Lancet.
  • We should take it upon ourselves to assess the risks involved in how we report scientific findings, asking ourselves whether our published work can be misconstrued or misrepresented so as to allow a false discourse to emerge that can create a situation that does more harm than good.  I am not suggesting, in any form, that we should self-censor but there may be better ways of disseminating information to allow a more constructive debate.  A lack of transparency can also lead to a rise in misinformation, although we should endeavour to realise that the relationship between opaqueness, conspiracies and power, in the eyes of the public and other stakeholder groups, is a complex one and there are no easy fixes.
  • Following on from this we should aim to provide the public with timely information (see my second point) that adds to the debate, treats the individual or group with respect and takes out of the communication moralising (our prejudice) about their behaviour or activity. This is a multidisciplinary arena which works most effectively when it engages people from different disciplines and stakeholder groups to develop strategies relevant to the target cohort(s).
  • Words (and deeds) matter – choose your words carefully and have consideration for the cultural as well as scientific aspects of the cohorts’ living status.  Using certain words and phrases, however well meaning, can alienate, disenfranchise, further stigmatise and evoke distrust in the individuals or groups we are trying to help.  This applies across a range of illnesses and traumas, but particularly so for those in which there is significant stigma, such as mental health and HIV. In doing so, and where you can, try to make it a two-way dialogue and place the person we are trying to help at the centre of the research – co-create and co-produce – and ensure their contribution is valued.

Those outside science, medicine and research also have responsibilities, especially those that are in positions which require them to uphold given behaviour and adhere to certain protocols or codes of conduct. This is particularly important when using frameworks to build trust between stakeholders in the public at large and the wider concept of ‘truth’.

These are just a few thoughts and are not meant to be definitive answers. But I do hope to stimulate some debate.

10 ingredients for a successful supervisor/PhD student relationship – A thoughtful commentary from Elsevier Connect

The PhD candidate-Supervisor Relationship is probably the cornerstone of academic research, at least in Western Europe. The relationship, which can last anything from 3 to 5 or more years depending on the type and location of the PhD degree, provides a key transition for the student from being a learned individual to one who enhances these attributes and becomes more or less independent in their pursuit of excellence.

Some of the more successful relationships last a lifetime particularly for those candidates that continue a career in academia or a similar domain. Prof Torralba declares 10 key constituents for developing this relationship successfully. How do these attributes/features resonate with your experiences as a supervisor or student?

Is it a bird? Yes it is a peregrine!

Leeds doesn’t have a cathedral but nearby Wakefield Cathedral has a funky visitor, which gets attention from over 100,000 fans in 57 countries! A pair of peregrine falcons are currently nesting on top of the cathedral tower and they have their own personal webcam. Therapeutic viewing after a long day contemplating life, the Universe and BioTrib.

Stop Press – 24 hours later:  Judith tells me there are also Peregrines located on the Parkinson Tower at the University of Leeds.